Most experts believe that nothing short of a revolution in our understanding of fundamental physics will be required to achieve a full understanding of the cosmic acceleration. For these reasons, the nature of dark energy ranks among the most compelling of all outstanding questions in physical science. These circumstances demand an ambitious observational program to determine the dark energy properties as well as possible.Dark Energy Camera (DECam), to study the mystery of the acceleration of the expanding universe. In 2012, DECam will be installed on the 4-meter Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory high in the Chilean mountains. Over five years, the DES collaboration will use 525 nights of observation to carry out a high-precision, wide-area survey to record information from 300 million galaxies that are billions of light-years from Earth. The survey will image 5000 square degrees of the southern sky in 5 optical filters to obtain detailed information about each galaxy. A fraction of the time will be used to observe smaller patches of sky every few days to discover and study thousands of supernovae.
DES combines four probes of Dark Energy: